Color in Schools: How to Brighten Up the Learning Environment
Anyone who's ever redecorated a room knows how a splash of color – or an entirely new color – can completely change the overall "feel" of the space.
This is especially true in learning environments. Color in schools have an enormous impact on students' emotions and mindset during the school day.
In the past, schools were built to meet basic functional and financial requirements. Monotonous colors like off-white, beige, and gray dominated most classrooms and school hallways, and design was barely a consideration. Today, modern educational institutions are focusing on color and design to help define a space's purpose and identity, and improve teachers' and students' educational experience through the right aesthetic choices.
Finding the right color balance in schools
When making interior design choices for a school setting, the goal should be to seek a balance between over-stimulation and lack of stimulation. To do this, it's important to understand the mental and emotional effects of each color, and what type of environment you wish to create.
Research shows that primary and bold colors promote playfulness and positivity, which are ideal for preschool and elementary school environments. Subtle, cool and warm colors, on the other hand, are better for middle and high schools, as these colors promote concentration and relieve the feelings of anxiety that are common among students in this age group.
What impact do colors have on an environment?
If you're new to the concept of color theory, here's a brief overview of how common colors can impact a physical space and its occupants.
- Red: Stimulant; provokes conversation; improves performance/concentration; spurs action.
- Orange: Uplifting; stimulates critical thinking and memorization; increases appetite.
- Yellow: Promotes awareness; helps to release serotonin for happy mood.
- Green: Calming effect; stress reliever; promotes concentration
- Blue: Enhances creativity and alertness; promotes tranquility; improves overall health, memory, and mood; lessens fatigue and depression.
- Violet: Represents wisdom and authority; respectful.
- Pink: Soothing; reduces heart rate; energizing effect (with saturated shades) or comforting effect (with paler shades).
- Black: Promotes sophistication, security, and efficiency; the absence of color.
- White: Conveys sterility, simplicity, clarity, and purity; hygienic.
The best colors to use in school environments
How can you apply color theory to your school's interior design? Here are our recommendations for color choices for various settings within a school building.
Classrooms – Blue is one of the most effective classroom colors. White can also be a good dominant color for a classroom if it's accompanied by a colorful accent wall. In small doses, yellow can be effective in maintaining students' awareness in the classroom.
Libraries – Due to its positive effects on concentration, green is a great option for libraries, where students need to focus on their studies.
Gymnasiums – Action-oriented red and highly-saturated pinks may encourage the necessary physical responses in a school gym setting.
Cafeterias – Orange's impact on appetite makes it an appropriate color for a school cafeteria.
Offices – Authoritative areas such as the principal's or guidance counselor's office may benefit from the atmosphere of respect created by violet tones. For the same reason, violet can be a great choice for an auditorium as well.
Exposed Structures – Black is ideal for concealing any exposed structures in the school, as it creates the sense of void.
Corridors and Lobbies - Learning and concentration are not the main objectives in public spaces like hallways and reception areas, so you can be a little more "free" with your color and design choices here. For instance, consider using the school's colors and logo to create a sense of pride and identity here.
Additional school design tips
To further enhance your learning environment, try some of these interior design tips:
1. Incorporate accent walls.
Accent walls – walls painted in a distinct color from the others in a room – can serve many design purposes in a school setting. You may be able to add interest or focus to a room, or strategically use an accent wall to make a room appear larger.
2. Create visual focal points on walls.
In addition to color, you can hang wall graphics or paint murals on walls to create focal points in hallways and classrooms. Hanging quotes, tips, nature scenes, and other images on the wall can inspire and inform students, and also serve to underscore the school's values. These décor elements can also serve as "landmarks" to help students find their way around.
3. Consider color-coding different wings of the building.
To truly promote way-finding through your school's design, you may wish to color code certain locations throughout the building for easier navigation. Strategic color accents in places such as floor tiles, ceiling soffits, and wall alcoves can help students distinguish entryways from hallways. Color also triggers sensory receptors in the brain, which can improve recall abilities and help students locate specific sites within a given space.
No matter what colors you choose to use in a learning environment, be sure to choose them with care and purpose. A thoughtfully-coordinated color scheme can provide a simple way to improve functionality, create a unified identity, and develop a sense of place within a school.
Need help with a school interior design project? Contact Patrick S. Seiwell at DRG Architects to discuss your needs.
8 Applied Technologies That Have Improved Architectural Design and Engineering
Applied technologies like virtual reality, 3D printing, and drone photography have completely revolutionized the world of architecture and engineering.
From entertainment and photography to product development and retail sales, it’s hard to find an industry that hasn’t been impacted by the latest tech advances.
Integrating such technologies into our architectural design and engineering services has allowed us to improve nearly every aspect of our clients’ end-to-end experience, including communication and speed of delivery, presentation, design quality, and building investigations.
At DRG Architects, we integrate these nine applied technologies to create high-quality, value-added designs for our clients:
1. Virtual Reality
Virtual reality (VR) is an artificial experience generated by a computer. By wearing a headset, you can emerge yourself into a fully simulated environment, feeling as though you are actually among those very surroundings.
VR is typically used for educational and entertainment purposes, but it can also be used in design. For instance, we use virtual reality for 3D presentations to show clients their proposed designs. By wearing the headset and experiencing the design firsthand, clients can decide whether they approve before it is put into action.
2. Augmented Reality
With augmented reality (AR), the virtual and real world seem to coexist. AR projects simulated elements, including computer graphics and sounds, onto the actual environment around you, typically by leveraging the camera on a mobile device or tablet.
AR allows architects to project their designs onto the empty site they’re working on, so clients can have a visual of the project within the given environment before construction begins.
3. Computer Renderings and Animations
By using 3D renderings and animations, designers can present their projects almost as if they are movie scenes, including special effects like lighting, furnishings, landscaping, vehicles, and even people.
Clients can experience a “walk-through” of the rendered building by accessing every part of the design, starting with the entrance and working through all proposed rooms. That way, they can request changes before committing to the project.
4. 3D Printing
3D printing turns digital files into dimensional objects by “slicing” the file into thin horizontal layers and melding them together.
By using 3D printing, we can create a physical model of our clients’ proposed designs, so they can gain a sense of the building’s scale, massing, and fenestration before committing to the construction. The models are intricate and detailed, so clients can truly visualize the proposed design on a smaller scale.
4. Building Information Modeling
Building information modeling (BIM) is a streamlined process that creates a single model encompassing all aspects, disciplines and systems of a building.
We use REVIT, an Autodesk BIM software, which helps us design, simulate and visualize the building structure. That way, everyone involved in the architectural and design process, from contractors to consultants, can collaborate more efficiently while generating savings in scheduling, project costs, change orders and general errors.
5. Clash Detection
Clash detection software examines models and identifies any issues or interference between different building elements.
As designers and architects, we think it’s important to recognize potential risks before starting the construction process to avoid costly errors.
PlanGrid holds field observations and surveys, allowing you to add markups, sketches, notes and photos. The software stores all information so that it’s readily available whenever access is needed, and is also used for analysis and development of as-built backgrounds.
This is great for the construction process as well, since it uses real-time updates and seamless file synchronization, so everyone can be an active part of the process.
7. 3D Laser Scanning
3D laser scanning is the process of scanning objects or environments to understand their shapes and appearances. We integrate 3D laser scanning with software services that record and report information on existing conditions.
Our design teams then have insight on building components like wall and floor thickness and any inconsistencies found in the existing drawings. This serves as a reference tool to help designers verify information before moving forward with construction.
You likely know that drones can snap photos and record videos from an above view. This application of drone technology can be useful for designers as well. DRG uses drones for initial field survey, inspecting difficult-to-reach areas and identifying any issues or possible needs for investigation, which we then provide to office staff during the design and construction document phase. We also record progress during the construction process to showcase to clients. DRG prides itself in keeping on the cutting edge of drone photography as it applies to architecture and engineering.
As applied technology continues to evolve and improve over time, we pride ourselves on bringing cutting-edge solutions to our architectural design and engineering services. If you want to incorporate the latest tech into your next building project, contact DRG Architects for a proposal.
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NJ Student Sheds Light on NYC Special Needs School & Local NJ Programs in Interview with DRG Architects
Written By: Mikayla Salib
Back in 2019, Design Resources Group Architects (DRG) broke ground on the revolutionary Richard H. Hungerford School in Staten Island, the first of its kind, developed from the NYCSCA’s vision to meet the unique needs and challenges required for students with special needs and severe disabilities in a nurturing, supportive environment.
This past December, Mikayla Salib, a student from Montgomery High School in New Jersey, sat down with some of the architects involved in bringing this state- of-the-art learning facility to life.
In this pre-COVID interview, Mikayla asks about the Hungerford School design process, what features will improve the overall experience of special needs students, and draws comparisons to her local special needs program at Montgomery High School.
Going back to the beginning, the DRG team visited other schools that specialized in education for children with disabilities as part of our research for NYCSCA. This was followed by talking to teachers, therapists, aides, and parents about specific aspects of the building design that would be customized to create a supportive environment for the students.
According to the Director of Design, Victor Rodriguez, AIA, the feedback from everyone involved was integrated into the building design with unique
features such as “ quiet and soft lights that will not irritate student’ s sensitive eyes” and “ non-distracting rooms that are clutter-free to decrease sensory overload, that have unified colors, sound-absorbing materials, and non-reflective glass.”
The school also provides vocational training for students to build their independence and skills that will benefit them in the real world. The design team included a daily living instructional classroom where students are taught in an apartment-like setting to practice living on their own. Specifically, a culinary arts classroom is provided, where students can show their talent by taking meal orders from staff, cooking, food preparation and the delivery of meals.
In an interview with the Principal of DRG, Timothy Margolin, LEED AP, AIA shared how the Hungerford School was the starting push for a movement in improving the special education school system for schools throughout New York City. “ We already have other clients asking us to design similar schools in other parts of New York City. This school is a model for others to follow, creating the foundation for a better educational experience for students with special needs that can reach children throughout the country.”
Bringing the focus in on a local level, the community can better understand the programs Montgomery High School in Skillman, New Jersey has to offer for its stud
ents with disabilities. Montgomery has a Skybox program where students with different severities and types of disabilities are taught academic and vocational skills with the help of trained teachers and aides. They also integrate students with special needs into other classes such as a gym class or home economics where the students are exposed to a setting that is inclusive of those with and without disabilities.
A special education teacher at Montgomery, Mrs. Caltiere, said, “ We have come such a long way in the special education system. Doctors used to tell parents that their child would never amount to anything and they should be put into an institute. Now children with disabilities have the right to free education and are given program opportunities in school such as the Skybox program” in order to help them achieve a more meaningful life.
The Hungerford School is expected to open its doors in September 2021, becoming another example of how the special education system in America is continually advancing, creating more opportunities for children with disabilities to be able to find their place in the world.
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View the Hungerford Project Page Here
Lighting’s Role in the Classroom
Written By: Emma Seiwell
Our environments impact our feelings and moods, which in turn shape the experience we have in a given space. It’s critical to understand that the spaces we occupy in our day-to-day lives are
never neutral. Classrooms- a central space in everyone’s young lives, should be thoughtfully designed to maximize comfort and functionality. School design, which once took a one size fits all approach, with an emphasis on affordability, has come a long way. Slowly, school design has evolved in accent with changes in learning techniques and the integration of technology. Studies have proven a clear link between school design and student performance. Lighting is perhaps the most critical element to consider for effective classroom design.
The quality and color of lighting can impair or enhance a student’s visual skills and consequently their academic performance. Aside from the obvious function of illumination for vision, light regulates a number of our bodily processes including circadian rhythm, sleep, cognition, mood, rest-activity patterns, and the production of important hormones such as melatonin and cortisol. Different kinds of lighting have varying effects on these processes. Successful classroom lighting design will harness these processes strategically to successfully achieve varying learning objectives.
In the past, fluorescent lights were the standard and most cost-effective choice for schools. It’s since been determined that fluorescents cause discomfort and impair visual performance due to their nearly imperceptible flicker and the glare they create when combined with daylight. This inadequate lighting can cause anxiety, bodily stress, and even hyperactivity in students.
Windows in a classroom have always been assumed as a means to distract students. This logic doesn’t truly add up. Science proves that windows offer the most ideal lighting source for a classroom. Sunlight exposure to our eyes or skin initiates the production of serotonin. This increase in serotonin boosts mood and helps a person stay focused and calm. Sunlight also resets our circadian rhythms or our internal clocks. This reset causes students to experience an increase in alertness and an overall improvement in academic performance.
A study published in 1999 found that incorporation of natural light in classrooms significantly improved student scores on standardized tests. The study observed 21,000 elementary-school students in three states: California, Colorado, and Washington. Over the course of a year, students with the most natural light in their classroom progressed 20 percent faster in math and 26 percent faster in reading than students with the least amount of light in the Capistrano school district in California.
Aside from their beneficial effects on students and teachers, natural light is a cost-effective way to light classrooms too. Utilities account for a significant portion of a school’s budget. On average, 26% of a school’s electricity usage is for lighting. (pg. 178) With the installation of more windows, schools can take advantage of sunlight to reduce electricity usage. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reported that schools can save approximately 30 percent on energy costs by installing more windows or full-spectrum lighting. Furthermore, daylighting classrooms serves as an eco-friendlier option since electricity generation can produce an abundance of greenhouse gases, depending on the source.
Where windows can’t be easily incorporated into a classroom’s design, light-emitting diode (LED) lights are the next best alternative. LEDs can produce a distinct blue light that imitates sunlight nearly identically and therefore has the same beneficial effects. Recently, there have been advances in LED-based “Human Centric Lighting.” This type of lighting system offers adjustable intensity and temperature of light to incrementally imitate the changing characteristics of daylight throughout the day. By simulating the sun, these man-made lights follow the patterns of light that we have become evolutionarily accustomed to. This careful manipulation of light can have a biologically optimal effect on students and teachers alike. The alignment between our environment and this internal biological process improves our quality of sleep, alertness, metabolism and overall, well-being. The wrong lighting can misalign this internal clock and lead to poor sleep and a subsequent negative effect on cognitive functioning and academic performance.
Cheryan, Sapna et al. "Designing Classrooms To Maximize Student Achievement". Policy Insights From The Behavioral And Brain Sciences, vol 1, no. 1, 2014, p. 5. SAGE Publications, doi:10.1177/2372732214548677.
Facility Type: K-12 Schools, Technical Recommendations". Energystar.Gov, 2006, https://www.energystar.gov/sites/default/files/buildings/tools/EPA_BUM_Full.pdf.
Heschong Mahone Group. Daylighting In Schools: An Investigation Into The Relationship Between Daylighting And Human Performance. Fair Oaks, CA 95628, 1999, https://h-m-g.com/downloads/Daylighting/schoolc.pdf.
Mott, Michael S., et al. “Illuminating the Effects of Dynamic Lighting on Student Learning.” SAGE Open, Apr. 2012, doi:10.1177/2158244012445585.
Uncapher, Melina. "The Science Of Effective Learning Spaces". Edutopia, 2016, https://www.edutopia.org/article/science-of-effective-learning-spaces-melina-uncapher.